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Types of Computer Memory
Computer memory is used to store data, information, intermediate result and final result.
The capacity of computer memory is measured in bytes, kilobytes etc. The smallest unit of computer memory is bit.
Different levels of capacity of computer memory are as follows: –
computer memory units
4 bit = 1 nibble
8 bit = 1 byte
1024 Byte = 1 KB (kilobytes byte)
1024 KB = 1 MB (Megabyte)
1024 MB = 1GB (Gigabyte)
1024 GB = 1TB (Terabyte)
1024 TB = 1 PB (Petabyte)
1024 PB = 1 EB (Exabyte)
1024 EB = 1 ZB (Zetta byte)
1024 ZB = 1 YB (Yotta byte)
1024 YB = 1 BB (Bronto byte)
1024 BB = 1 GB (Geop byte)…. ………………………………………. ……
There are 2 types of nature of computer memory: –
(Nature of computer memory)
2.Non volatile memory
1. Volatile Memory: – Memory in which data / information remains as long as it gets power supply. As soon as the memory power supply is stopped, all the data in this type of memory gets erased.
Ex: – RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
2. Non-volatile memory: – Memory in which data / information remains even when there is no electricity. Whether it gets power supply or not, the data contained in it is always safe until the computer user deletes that data.
Ex: – Hard disk drive (HDD), pen drive, memory card etc.
There are two types of computer memory: –
(primary and secondary memory)
1. Primary memory
2. Secondary memory
A. Primary memory: –
It is also called main memory or internal memory.
It is directly connected to the CPU, it is faster than secondary memory but slower than cpu register.
(cpu register is part of cpu but is counted as memory)
Its storage capacity is less than that of secondary memory.
There are 2 types of primary memory.
1. RAM 2. ROM
1. RAM (Random Access Memory)
It is called Random Access Memory because it takes equal time to reach any part of it. It has both read and write operations.
This is volatile memory, the memory where the data and information remain as long as it gets the power supply.
2. ROM (Read Only Memory)
It is called ROM because it can only have read operation. The data stored in it is inserted at the time of its creation.
The ROM contains the necessary instructions that the computer may need anytime.
This is non-volatile memory, that is, data / information is not destroyed even when there is no electricity. There are many types of ROM such as: –
READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY (PROM)
ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY (EPROM)
ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY (EEPROM)
B. Secondary memory:
Secondary memory is non-volatile memory, its speed is the slowest but the storage capacity is the highest.
All data / instruction which could be used in future is kept in secondary memory only.
Example : hard disk drive (HDD), pen drive, memory cards etc.
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