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Generation of Computer 1 to 5 in easy language
Friends, Development of computer has been categorized in Generation so that all of us can be able to understand the development of computer.
But before understanding the generation of computers, I want to make it clear to all of you that the starting year and ending year of different generation of computers in different books, websites can be different because the development of any person, thing or place takes time to happen and we can never say that development started on this day and stopped on this day.
Just like CRT TVs and computers will be found in many homes today. Likewise, mixer grinder is found in most kitchens today, but even today, hand mill will be found in many homes. This does not mean that the hand mill time is going on – just like any generation of computers starting and ending year You will find the difference in most books, websites, but this difference is very less,
The starting year of first generation of computers has been given in some books is 1946, which was the launching year of the first computer of the first generation of computers, but work on it was being done much earlier.
So let’s understand the development of computers in a generation, that is, the generation of computers, which is as follows-
1.First generation computer (1942–1955)
The computers that were built between 1942 and 1955 are considered to be the first generation of computers. These computers were equal to the rooms in size.
10000 or more vacuum tubes was used in each computer to control and transmit the electronic signal.
In the first generation of computers, the work of vacuum tube was like amplifier and switch which was used to convert weak signals to strong signals as well as stop and start signals flow.
A vacuum tube used to consume 1/2 watt of power, so each computer consumed 5000 watt or more to run .. The room where computers were kept was turned to be very hot and ACs were used to cool that place.
The programs that were written for the first generation of computers were written in machine language. The binary code 1 and 0 are used in machine language.
It was very difficult for a programmer to write a program in machine language and it took a lot of time. The first generation of computers were used in scientific work. The first vacuum tube computer was ENIAC and then EDVAC and UNIVAC were created.
Examples of first generation of computers:
- ENIAC ( Electronic Number Integrator & Calculator )
- EDVAC ( Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer )
- UNIVAC ( Universal Automatic Calculator )
- IBM 650, ( International Business Machine 650 )
- IBM 701 ( International Business Machine 701 )
Second generation computer (1955–1964)
In second generation of computers, transistors were used instead of vacuum tubes. Due to which power consumption was reduced to 1/10.
1 transistor used to work approximately 40 vacuum tubes, since the number of transistors used in a computer was much less than the number of vacuum tubes, so the size of the computer also became very small.
Programs for computer were written in assembly language in the place of machine language . assembly language such as Fortran and Cobol.
where Fortran was used in scientific work, Cobol was used in business.
Thus, second generation of computers started being used in scientific work as well as in business.
Such as inventory control, production planning, payroll etc.
Some computers of second generation of computers are as follows: –
Examples of second generation of computers:
- IBM 1620,
- IBM 7094,
- CDC 1600,
- CDC 3600 etc
Third generation computer 1964-1975
Until the 3rd Generation, computers had different components such as transistors, registers, capacitors, gates, etc. connected to each other by wire,
but in the 3rd Generation, all of these electronic components were started to mount on a single chip made of silicon.
The arrangement of all these components on a single chip was called Integrated circuit i.e. IC.
Initially 10 to 20 components were mounted on a chip and this was called small scale integration (S.S.I).
After that, hundreds of components were mounted on a chip and it was called Medium scale integration i.e. M.S.I.
In the third generation of computers, the main memory was of some megabyte like 5 MB and the secondary memory i.e. hard disk drive was of tens of mega byte.
Examples of third generation of computers:
- IBM 360 series
- IBM 370/168
- PDP (personal data processor)
Fourth generation computers (1975– 1989)
After 10-20 components in SSI and hundreds of components in MSI, the technology became even more advance and a time came when more than 30000 components started to be mounted on a single chip and it was called LSI ( large scale integration).
this was the time of 4th generation computer .
After some time, LSI (Large Scale Integration) became VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) in which more than one million components were planted on an IC.
This successive development led to the creation of a microprocessor. A microprocessor contains all the circuits required to perform arithmetic logic and control function.
This development later led to the development of a full-fledged computer with a microprocessor, some primary storage chips, and some auxiliary circuits, and this computer later evolved into a personal computer.
By this time the computers became very compact i.e. small and cheap so that it was possible for some people to afford & to keep a computer.
Examples of fourth generation of computers:
CRAY-X / MP,
Fifth generation computer (1989- till now)
The present time is the time of the 5th generation of computers in which technology like Artificial Intelligence is being used.
In 5th generation computers ,Very large scale integration (VLSI) has turned into ultra large scale integration (ULSI) to create microprocessor chip that has over 10 million component components
And as technology advanced, the microprocessor becomes more powerful and cheaper.
In present time, several new invention are being going on such as Internet of things, in which small and very cheap microprocessor are being used
Examples fifth generation of computers:
High End smartphone etc
Also Read : Types of computer according to their work
Also Read : Generation of Computer in Hindi Language