internal commands-ms-dos commands with example A2Z

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internal commands-ms-dos commands with example A2Z

Microsoft Disk Operating System is an example of Character User Interface, it is also known as MS-DOS in short.

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How to open Ms-Dos  in Computer

Click – Start button ( placed at lower left side of the screen)

Click —  Run  ( or press CTRL + R )

Write “Command”  or “Cmd”  in RUN

How to Change the drive through ms-dos commands

To change any drive, the name of that drive must be entered with colon.

Syntax- C: \> <Drive name>

Ex. – C: \> A:

Result . A:\

  • To stop running command — Ctrl + C
  • To save any file — Ctrl +Z or F6
  • To Maximize or Minimize screen of the computer —Alt + Enter

 

For different function of file & different disk activities, there are two types of Ms-Dos commands :-

  1. Internal Commands

  2. External Commands

Internal commands

Internal commands are commands of ms-dos that are present in MS-DOS files. Internal commands can be used as long as Ms-Dos is running on the computer system. Internal commands are the same for all computer systems.

These are the examples of internal commands :- ver, time, del, MD, CD, copy con, cls, date, vol, ren, copy etc.

Internal commands remain in RAM (main memory) when your PC boots (start). Internal commands are functions that are always present in a command interpreter.

while on the other hand

ms dos

External Commands

These are the commands which are not in-built in MS-DOS & are not included in the interpreter. External command may vary from system to system.

This means any two computers with same version of MS-DOS may have same internal commands, but may have different external commands.

External commands are stored on the disk ,many of the external commands are located in the Windows\system32 and they get loaded in RAM only when they are invoked.

There is a need of an internal file in the computer to read external MS-DOS command.

These are some external commands :- tree, xcopy, disk-copy, more, print, attrib, edit, move, sort etc.

Internal Commands( with examples )

  1. DATE

This command is an internal ms-dos command, used to display (or change) the current date of the system in the format MM / DD / YY

Syntax C: \> DATE  (then press ENTER button of keyboard ,now we can see the current date in (MM-DD-YY) format)

Ex. – C: \> date

  1. TIME

This command is used to display or change the current time of a computer system. The format that is used by the time command is HH: MM: SS . Where HH is in the 24-hour format, MM for minutes, SS for seconds

Syntax C: \> TIME             (then press ENTER button of keyboard ,now we can see the current time of the system)

Ex. – C: \> time

  1. Ver (Version)

This command is used to see the present version of disk operating system

Syntax- C: \> Ver               (then press ENTER button of keyboard)

Ex.- C: \> Ver

  1. Vol ( Volume )

This command is used to see the Label (name) and serial number of the drive we are using

Syntax- C: \> Vol              (then press ENTER button of keyboard)

Ex.- C: \> Vol

  1. CLS (Clear Screen Command)

This command is used to clear the output displayed on the screen while working with ms-dos command

Syntax C: \> CLS                (then press ENTER button of keyboard)

Ex.- C: \> CLS

  1. COPY CON

This command is used to create a file such as notepad, MS-Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access etc. here we use extension also in file creation so computer can recognize easily that which application is to use to open the file .

Syntax- C: \> Copy Con   <File Name><File Extension>

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Ex.- C: \> Copy Con abc.txt

Hello this is computer class

^ Z (Ctrl + Z) / F6

1 file copied

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( here file name—abc , file extension — .txt)

  1. MD ( or MKDIR – Make directory)

This command is used to create a new directory ( or to create new folder)

Syntax- C: \> MD <Directory name>

Ex. – C: \> MD ABC     (after pressing enter button of the keyboard, a folder (can be said directory also) named ABC will be created C drive)

Remarks – if you want to create directory/ folder named with 2 or more word then you have to write the name of that directory/folder in inverted comma like given below

Ex. – C: \> MD “nursing college” (after pressing enter button of the keyboard, a folder (can be said directory also) named nursing college will be created C drive)

If you are not putting name in inverted commas then the command will create two distinct folder name nursing & college

C: \> MD nursing college

  1. RD ( or RMDIR — Remove Directory)

This command is used to remove directory ( or to remove folder)

Syntax- C: \> RD <DIR name>

Ex. – C: \> RD ABC

Remarks – if you want to remove directory/ folder named with 2 or more word then you have to write the name of that directory/folder in inverted comma like given below

Ex. – C: \> RD  “nursing college” (after pressing enter button of the keyboard, a folder (can be said directory also) named nursing college will be removed from C drive)

If you are not putting name in inverted commas then the command will search 2 distinct folder named nursing & college to remove

C: \> RD nursing college

 

  1. CD (Change Directory)

This command is used to change the directory

Syntax- C: \> CD <DIR name>

Ex. – C: \> CD ABC

(by this command you will go into the folder named ABC that is placed in C drive)

after pressing this command — C: \> CD ABC , you will go to

Ex. – C: \ABC>

  1. CD ..(for going towards back/root directory) 

By This command, you will go to previous folder ( directory) where you was earlier ( towards root directory)

Syntax- C: \> <Dir name> <command>

Ex. – C: \> ABC> CD ..

C: \>

  1. CD\  ( for going root directory directly)

By This command, you will go towards root directory in a single go )

Syntax- C: \> <Dir name> <command>

Ex. – C: \> ABC\DEF> CD\                              (after pressing this , you will go directly to root directory)

C: \>

  1. DIR 

This command display a list of files and subdirectories in a directory(or folder)

Syntax- C: \> Dir

If you want to see the list of files of a particular directory, then give the name of the directory with dir.

Syntax-C: \> Dir <Directory name>

Ex. – C: \> Dir abc

Some other commands with related with Dir

Dir/A :-   To display all files and directories in a directory, including hidden or system files

Dir/P :-  To display directories/folders –page by page

Dir/W :- to display all directories/folders without name & size

Dir/B :- To display only name of directories/folders

Dir/L :- To display names of directories/folders in lowercase

Dir A*.* :- To display all directories/folder starting with letter A

Next Topic

click on link given below to see part-2

 Next Topic : MS-DOS commands with easy example-part2

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Also Read : What is multimedia ? how does multimedia works A2Z

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